Having claimed a 43 run first-innings lead on a viciously turning track, Bangladesh further consolidated their position and were 45-1 at the close on the second day.
Questions remain about whether the Australians were mentally prepared for their first series on Bangladeshi soil since 2006.
There was a time when a Test match against Bangladesh was expected to be a one-sided affair and the Tigers had to struggle to adapt to the longest format of the game while facing a lot of criticism from the cricket pundits.
"We made a few errors, a few guys getting out in ways they've got out before and not learning from their mistakes, which was a bit disappointing", Smith told reporters after play.
Australia will slip one place to fifth in the ICC Test rankings even if they level the series by winning the second Test in Chittagong from Monday.
But Bangladesh were back once that stand was broken.
Earlier, Bangladesh scored 260 runs in the first innings with Tamim Iqbal (71) and Shakib scoring handsomely for the hosts. "In this test, the wicket was pretty tough to bat on, that has to be said, because the top order also found it hard to bat".
Adjudged best player of the game, Shakib also became the first Bangladesh bowler to claim 10 wickets in a Test twice.
A brilliant 112 from opener David Warner gave Australia hope, before it all evaporated in Dhaka.
On the sledging part, vice-captain and man of the match in Dhaka, Shakib Al Hasan was quoted to be saying by Cricinfo.com, "Australians are very good at it, we are learning from them".
Hazlewood's contribution to the Bangladesh tour may not be over yet, despite the left side strain that team physiotherapist David Beakley said would require "several weeks of rehabilitation".
Cummins is not anxious, though, and says Bird is primed to fill the void in Australia's bowling attack.
After the match, Shakib took the microphone and spoke to the crowd in Bengali, saying it was their belief and the faith of their supporters that carried them through. Smith also was dismissed to a similar delivery which he edged to the wicketkeeper and ended his innings on 37. "I thought we fought back really nicely after that thought we let ourselves down a bit in the first innings with the bat".