"In development of this dialogue at the highest level" US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson met with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow in April and Lavrov had a meeting with Trump in Washington on Wednesday, he said.
It is not known if the diplomats will discuss Russia's alleged meddling in elections in United States and Europe.
In addition to posting the Lavrov-Trump picture, the foreign ministry also posted video of Lavrov joking about Comey's firing.
NBC's Andera Mitchell asked, "Does the Comey firing cast a shadow over the talks, gentlemen?" and Lavrov replied, with feigned shock, "Was he fired?"
Lavrov said that Syria and Ukraine were discussed, while repeatedly stressing the "business like" attitude of Trump and his administration, free of the ideological bias and "dirty tricks" of Barack Obama's presidency.
Attorney General Jeff Sessions recused himself from the investigation into Trump's campaign ties with Russia after reports revealed he denied under oath having contact with Russian officials during his confirmation session despite meeting with Kislyak while serving as a senator in 2016.
On Tuesday, Trump fired Comey, who had been leading the investigation into whether there was collusion between the Trump campaign and Russian officials.
BEN CARDIN: Did we really hear a commitment by the president of the United States that we would not tolerate that type of behavior by Russian Federation - no, business as usual.
"We had a very good conversation with Minister Lavrov",- quote the media. "You're kidding. You're kidding".
The White House statement about Wednesday's meeting also noted Trump's desire to build a stronger bilateral relationship with Moscow on a wide variety of topics.
U.S. Defense Secretary Jim Mattis said on May 8 that the United States would examine the plan "very, very carefully".
"We want to see the killing, the terrible killing, stopped in Syria as soon as possible and everyone is working toward that end", Trump told reporters. The continued fighting between rebels and Assad's military has complicated USA efforts to defeat IS.
He said the focus of his discussions had been on creating so-called de-escalation zones inside Syria.
The diplomats met Wednesday in Washington - and there's a new Russian-led agreement to create safe zones in Syria. Critical details need to be finalised, and the U.S. response has been cautious.
Lavrov says American politicians who are raising questions about Russian interference in the 2016 election are damaging the USA political system by suggesting it's being controlled by outsiders.